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Tux.svg

The Linux Mascot, Tux

GNU/Linux, often called Linux, is a Unix-based and mostly POSIX-compliant computer kernel family built under the model of free and open-source software development and distribution, with many different flavors and versions (known as "distros"), based on the Linux kernel first released on October 5, 1991 by Linus Torvalds, and the userland of the GNU system, developed by Richard Stallman and the GNU Project. There are, however, systems that can be called "Linux distros", nothing less, nothing more, due to their lack of the GNU userland, such as Alpine (using musl as its C library and busybox as its core utility set). GNU/Linux has currently ca. 2% of the desktop market share, which is why many applications, mostly proprietary software, do not have GNU/Linux versions. Despite not being an optimal choice for gamers, a version of Linux called "Steam OS" made by Valve Corporation was a version of Linux compatible with many Windows PC games, mostly being games on the popular gaming platform Steam, and Steam itself is available on most Linux distros.

Although GNU/Linux is for the most part free and open-source, some proprietary software is available for it, especially high-end software and development tools, such as JetBrains's tools, Autodesk Maya and Lightworks. In the rare case of an unrecoverable error, it handles it with a Kernel Panic, rather than a BSoD.

Linux is named "Linux" after its main developer, Linus Torvalds. Initially, when he was studying at the University of Helsinki, using an education-oriented UNIX-like system called "Minix" and developing his own monolithic kernel and operating system, he was going to name it Freax, a portmanteau of "freak", "free", and "x". The mascot and logo of the Linux kernel is the penguin Tux (shown right), chosen in a logo competition[1] in 1996.

"Red Star OS", a North Korean operating system, is also Linux based; although its current version resembles Mac OSX rather than Linux, in which previous versions resembled Windows XP, then Windows 7. Using this system is considered illegal due to the enormous count of GNU GPL violations.

Desktop environments and window managers

A desktop environment is an implementation of the desktop metaphor, providing a graphical interface and programs that work under it. A window manager is the program that manages the windows for the GUI of the system - all desktop environments provide one, e.g. KDE uses KWin, GNOME uses Mutter (formerly Metacity), Xfce uses Xfwm, but there are also many standalone window managers for those who wish to customize their desktop further than most desktop environments allow.

Some Linux desktop environments and window managers include:

  • Unity, the former default DE of Ubuntu, replaced by GNOME 3
  • Cinnamon, the main DE of Linux Mint, available on most distros
  • GNOME, the GNU Project's desktop environment
  • Enlightenment
  • KDE Plasma (formerly either KDE or Plasma), a Qt-based, thoroughly configurable DE available on all distros
  • Xfce, a lightweight, modular, customizable, GNOME-independent GTK-based desktop environments for many *nix systems including GNU/Linux, Solaris and BSD-family systems
  • LXDE, another lightweight and modular desktop environment that runs very well on old and deprecated hardware, using the Openbox window manager by default
  • LXQt, a Qt-based fork of LXDE with more features
  • MATE, a fork of GNOME 2 for those that miss its interface, kept up to date with modern technologies such as GTK+3
  • Pantheon, the GNOME-based default DE of elementaryOS
  • Fluxbox, an example of a standalone stacking window manager
  • i3-gaps, an example of a standalone tiling window manager, a fork of the i3 WM with more features

Malware on Linux

Ubuntu 15.10 with Firefox and Nautilus open

Another Screenshot of Ubuntu

Due to its relatively low market share and open-source/independent nature of the operating system, malware is rare and exploits are fixed rapidly. Most of the malware written for it is targeted towards websites or large business organizations due to the fact that it has a massive market share in servers, which makes GNU/Linux a lucrative target. They also rarely attack updated systems, as bugs being found are patched quickly, then added to update repos. Though there is not as much malware written for Linux, unlike Windows, cross-platform malware is becoming increasingly popular (since the common frameworks such as .NET Framework and Qt are cross-platform), and malware writers are now targeting Linux on the desktop more frequently. Android, which is a Linux kernel-based phone operating system, is also one of the most targeted platforms in the world on mobile for malware, because Android is the most common operating system on mobile devices. Some malware (such as Remaiten) may even run on other architectures (such as ARM or MIPS).

On February 20, 2016, Linux Mint's servers were hacked and someone installed spyware and backdoors in the Cinnamon version of Linux Mint 17.3. The hacking attack was from Sofia, Bulgaria.

References

External links

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SteamOS is a Debian-based Linux OS in development by Valve Corporation designed to be the primary operating system for the Steam Machine video game consoles. It was initially released on December 13, 2013, alongside the start of end-user beta testing of Steam Machines.

SteamOS is currently the only version of Linux designed for gaming. However, Linux has a program known as "Wine" which allows you to run Windows PC games on Linux. Despite that, the program can't run all games correctly.

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Most of this page uses content from Wikipedia. The original article was at Linspire. The page may have contained some inaccurate or outdated information, so please edit it so it contains better information.
The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with Malware Wiki, the text of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Common Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License.
Remove this template when most of the Wikipedia content has been removed or the Wikipedia information is outnumbered by non-Wikipedia information.

Linspire, previously known as LindowsOS, was a commercial operating system based on Debian GNU/Linux and later Ubuntu. Linspire was published by Linspire, Inc. and focused on ease-of-use, targeting home PC users. The last stable release of Linspire was version 6.0, which was released in October 2007.

On July 1, 2008, Linspire stockholders elected to change the company's name to Digital Cornerstone, and all assets were acquired by Xandros.

On August 8, 2008, Andreas Typaldos, CEO of Xandros, announced that Linspire would be discontinued in favor of Xandros; Freespire would change its base code from Ubuntu to Debian; and the Linspire brand would cease to exist.